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User Acceptance Testing (UAT) – Meaning, How-to guide, Process Template and Agile Quality

user acceptance testing - uat testing

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) stands as a pivotal phase in the realm of software development, ensuring that software solutions align perfectly with user needs and expectations. As organizations strive for seamless and reliable software, UAT emerges as an indispensable process that bridges the gap between development and user satisfaction. In this article, we delve into the significance of User Acceptance Testing, exploring its definition, role in software development, and a glimpse into the content that follows.

Definition of User Acceptance Testing (UAT)

User Acceptance Testing, commonly referred to as UAT, is the final testing phase before software is released to its intended users. It involves evaluating the software’s functionality and performance to ensure that it meets predefined acceptance criteria. UAT is primarily executed by end-users, validating whether the software fulfills their requirements and expectations. This testing phase extends beyond technical validation, focusing on the software’s user-friendliness, usability, and alignment with real-world scenarios.

Importance of UAT in Software Development

UAT holds immense importance in the software development lifecycle for several reasons. It serves as the ultimate litmus test, determining if the software is ready for its intended users. While previous testing phases uncover technical glitches, UAT ensures that the software makes sense from an end-user perspective. It safeguards against releasing software that might be functionally accurate but lacks practical usability. UAT serves as a direct feedback loop from users to developers, highlighting any deviations from the intended user experience.

Brief overview of the article content

In this article, we embark on a journey to explore the facets of User Acceptance Testing. We delve into a comprehensive guide on the UAT process, providing insights into each step from planning to execution. Discover how meticulous planning and thorough execution of UAT scenarios contribute to the overall software quality.

Unveil the numerous benefits UAT brings to the table – from ensuring software meets user requirements to enhancing user satisfaction and minimizing post-release surprises. Understand the key considerations that lead to effective UAT implementation, from defining clear acceptance criteria to addressing potential security concerns.

Explore real-world challenges that UAT endeavors to overcome, and the strategies employed to conquer them. Additionally, learn about the automation tools that amplify UAT efficiency and delve into a compelling UAT success story that underscores the impact of a meticulous testing approach.

As we journey through the various dimensions of User Acceptance Testing, one thing becomes clear: UAT is not just a phase; it’s a commitment to delivering software that aligns with user needs, enriching both the software experience and user satisfaction.

Business Analysts (BA) are expected to perform UAT testing. Become a great BA with the Business Analyst Work Experience Program

UAT Process: A Step-by-Step Guide

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) stands as the ultimate checkpoint in software development, where the rubber meets the road for end-user satisfaction. This comprehensive guide sheds light on the intricate process of UAT, unveiling its stages and essential steps that pave the way for flawless software delivery.

Explanation of the UAT process stages

The UAT process comprises distinct stages that collectively contribute to delivering software excellence.

User acceptance testing (UAT) process
User acceptance testing (UAT) process

Steps involved in planning UAT

User acceptance testing begins with understanding the software's objectives and scope, followed by devising test cases that mirror real-world user scenarios. Subsequently, executing these scenarios illuminates potential discrepancies between user expectations and the software's performance. Capturing and addressing defects that emerge during testing lead us to the final stages: reviewing and approving UAT results.

  1. Planning UAT: Laying the Foundation

    Effective UAT begins with meticulous planning. It involves collaborating with stakeholders to define clear acceptance criteria that the software must meet. This phase also necessitates identifying and involving the right participants – the end-users whose feedback will determine the software's readiness. The planning stage sets the tone for a structured UAT execution, ensuring every critical aspect is addressed.

  2. Executing UAT Scenarios and Test Cases

    With the groundwork laid, the execution phase commences. End-users embark on a journey to simulate real-life scenarios, testing the software's functionalities in various contexts. This stage is marked by the deliberate exploration of the software, evaluating its performance, ease of use, and alignment with user expectations. Each scenario and test case scrutinizes different aspects of the software, contributing to a holistic understanding of its capabilities.

  3. Capturing and Reporting UAT Defects

    UAT thrives on transparency, and defects are part of that reality. As end-users traverse the software landscape, any deviations from the expected user experience are noted and documented. This phase isn't about blame but improvement. It's an opportunity to refine the software based on real user interactions, fostering a user-centric approach to development.

  4. Review and Approval of UAT Results

    The journey concludes with a meticulous review of UAT results. Stakeholders and end-users collaboratively assess the software's performance against acceptance criteria. The insights garnered during testing guide the decision-making process. Upon approval, the software is deemed ready for release, backed by the confidence that it meets user needs and expectations.


Business Analysts (BA) are expected to perform UAT testing. Become a great BA with the Business Analyst Work Experience Program

Benefits of User Acceptance Testing

In the intricate realm of software development, one pivotal phase emerges as the lighthouse of assurance – User Acceptance Testing (UAT). This process not only bridges the gap between developer intentions and user expectations but also showers a multitude of benefits that elevate the entire software experience.

Ensuring software meets user requirements

The heart of UAT beats to the rhythm of user needs. It serves as the ultimate validation that software aligns with the intricate requirements of its intended users. As end-users meticulously navigate through the software, their interactions unveil the extent to which the software caters to their needs and aspirations. This process instills a profound sense of alignment, where every code and feature resonates with the essence of user expectations.

Minimizing post-release issues and user dissatisfaction

Imagine a scenario where a software release triggers an array of user grievances. User Acceptance Testing is the sentinel against such possibilities. By simulating real-world scenarios, UAT uncovers issues that might have remained dormant in the developmental shadows. By addressing these concerns pre-release, it becomes a guardian against the ripple effect of post-release dissatisfaction.

Increasing confidence in the software’s reliability

Software users seek reliability, an unwavering trust that the solution will deliver as promised. UAT emerges as a catalyst in cultivating this trust. As end-users meticulously validate the software’s functionalities, their experiences shape a robust belief in the software’s reliability. This phase doesn’t merely test; it builds an unshakable bridge of faith between the software and its users.

Enhancing user experience and satisfaction

User experience reigns supreme, and UAT serves as its advocate. Every test, scenario, and interaction contributes to refining the user journey. Flaws are ironed out, processes streamlined, and user-friendliness optimized. As end-users traverse the software landscape seamlessly, they’re greeted with an experience that mirrors their desires and aspirations. This harmonious user experience becomes the cornerstone of ultimate satisfaction.

Key Considerations for Effective UAT

Imagine a world where software meets not only functional standards but user aspirations. This world is within reach through User Acceptance Testing (UAT), a crucial phase that transforms software dreams into user realities. To harness the power of UAT, several key considerations come into play, ensuring the perfect blend of user satisfaction and software excellence.

Defining clear acceptance criteria for UAT

UAT doesn’t thrive in ambiguity; it flourishes with clarity. Defining crystal-clear acceptance criteria is akin to setting the compass for a successful UAT journey. These criteria outline the boundaries of excellence that the software must meet. With these boundaries set, UAT becomes a guided exploration, ensuring that every step aligns with user needs and expectations.

Involving end-users and stakeholders

End-users aren’t just passengers on this UAT journey; they are its navigators. Involving end-users and stakeholders isn’t a mere formality; it’s the essence of UAT’s success. Their insights, feedback, and experiences paint a vivid picture of what the software needs to be. With their fingerprints on the process, UAT evolves from a technical test to a user-centric voyage.

Realistic scenario creation for testing

UAT isn’t a robotic repetition of steps; it’s an intricate dance of real-life scenarios. Creating scenarios that mimic actual user interactions is the heartbeat of UAT’s effectiveness. This process delves into the essence of user journeys, simulating the highs and lows they encounter. These scenarios become the canvas on which UAT paints a masterpiece of user-friendliness and functionality.

Addressing security and data privacy concerns

In a digitized world, security and data privacy are non-negotiable. UAT doesn’t merely ensure software functionality; it safeguards user trust. Addressing security concerns means fortifying the software against vulnerabilities. It’s a commitment to building a fortress of reliability where user data is protected and user confidence is upheld.

Business Analysts (BA) are expected to perform UAT testing. Become a great BA with the Business Analyst Work Experience Program

UAT Best Practices

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) isn’t just a phase; it’s a gateway to software excellence that resonates with end-users. To harness the full potential of UAT, a set of best practices emerge as guiding lights, ensuring a user-centric and flawless software journey.

Collaborative approach between development and testing teams

The synergy between development and testing teams isn’t just essential; it’s the backbone of UAT success. A collaborative approach fosters a shared understanding of objectives, challenges, and solutions. Development teams provide insight into technical intricacies, while testing teams offer user perspective. This alliance ensures that UAT isn’t a standalone event but a harmonious symphony of expertise.

Examples of creating comprehensive UAT test cases

UAT isn’t guesswork; it’s a systematic exploration. Crafting comprehensive test cases paves the way for this exploration. These test cases are more than mere steps; they’re roadmaps that guide end-users through the software landscape. Each test case reflects a user scenario, ensuring that no corner of the software remains untested. This comprehensive approach eradicates guesswork and ensures that user experiences mirror the intended outcomes.

Test Case IDTest ScenarioTest StepsExpected OutcomePass/Fail
UAT_TC01User Registration1. Navigate to the registration page.Successful registration with a unique username and password.
2. Fill in valid user information.A confirmation message and email are received.
3. Submit the registration form.User is registered and can log in.
UAT_TC02Product Purchase1. Log in using valid credentials.Successful login.
2. Browse the product catalog.Products are displayed accurately.
3. Add a product to the cart.Product is added to the cart.
4. Proceed to checkout.Checkout process is smooth and error-free.
5. Complete the payment process.Payment is successful, and a confirmation is received.
UAT_TC03Account Settings Update1. Log in using valid credentials.Successful login.
2. Navigate to account settings.Account settings page is accessible.
3. Update email address or password.Changes are saved and confirmed.
4. Save the changes.User receives a notification of successful update.
UAT_TC04Content Publishing1. Log in with appropriate credentials.Successful login.
2. Navigate to content creation section.Content creation interface is accessible.
3. Create a new article or post.Content is created and saved without errors.
4. Add relevant media (images or videos).Media is added and displayed correctly within the content.
5. Publish the content.Content is published and visible to users.
UAT_TC05Search Functionality1. Access the search feature on the website.Search bar is present and functional.
2. Enter relevant keywords.Search results match the entered keywords.
3. Review displayed search results.Results include relevant content and are organized logically.
4. Click on a search result.User is directed to the selected content.

Real-world scenario simulation

UAT isn’t confined to sterile labs; it thrives in the real world. Simulating real-world scenarios elevates UAT from a technical process to a user-centric adventure. The software isn’t tested in isolation; it’s evaluated as users would engage with it. This simulation injects authenticity into the UAT process, addressing potential hiccups and ensuring a seamless user journey.

Incorporating end-user feedback

End-users aren’t passive recipients; they’re active participants in UAT’s success. Their feedback isn’t a footnote; it’s a cornerstone. Incorporating end-user feedback polishes the software, ironing out wrinkles that only users can uncover. This practice transforms UAT from a one-time event to an iterative process, driving continuous improvement and fine-tuning user experiences.

Business Analysts (BA) are expected to perform UAT testing. Become a great BA with the Business Analyst Work Experience Program

Real-Life UAT Success Story

Many companies across various industries have successfully implemented User Acceptance Testing (UAT) as a crucial step in their software development process. Here are a few notable examples:

  1. Apple: Apple extensively uses UAT for testing new software releases, ensuring that their products meet the high standards expected by their users. This includes both macOS and iOS updates.
  2. Facebook: Social media giant Facebook employs UAT to validate new features and changes to their platform before they are rolled out to millions of users, ensuring a smooth user experience.
  3. Microsoft: Microsoft incorporates UAT in the development of its software products, such as the Windows operating system and Office suite. This helps them identify and address issues before widespread release.
  4. Amazon: E-commerce giant Amazon utilizes UAT to test new features and enhancements on their website and mobile apps. This helps them maintain a seamless shopping experience for their customers.
  5. Google: Google employs UAT to test updates and new features for their suite of products, including Google Workspace (formerly G Suite) and Android operating system.
  6. Salesforce: As a leading customer relationship management (CRM) platform, Salesforce implements UAT to validate new features and customizations before they are available to their users.
  7. Netflix: Streaming giant Netflix uses UAT to ensure a glitch-free experience for their subscribers when rolling out new app versions and features.
  8. Uber: Ride-sharing company Uber employs UAT to thoroughly test updates and new features in their app to provide a reliable and user-friendly service.
  9. Airbnb: Airbnb utilizes UAT to validate changes to their platform, ensuring that hosts and guests have a smooth experience when using the website and app.
  10. Adobe: Adobe employs UAT to test updates and enhancements to their creative software products like Photoshop, Illustrator, and Premiere Pro.

These companies, among many others, recognize the importance of UAT in delivering software and services that meet user expectations, enhance user satisfaction, and maintain their reputation for quality and reliability.

UAT and Agile Development

In the dynamic landscape of software development, agility has emerged as the guiding principle for innovation. The integration of User Acceptance Testing (UAT) within Agile methodologies has given rise to a symbiotic relationship that propels the development process towards excellence. This fusion not only accelerates software delivery but also enhances user satisfaction through a continuous cycle of testing and refinement.

Integrating UAT within Agile methodologies

Agile methodologies, characterized by their iterative and incremental approach, emphasize adaptability and collaboration. Integrating UAT seamlessly aligns with these principles, infusing the development cycle with user-centricity. In Agile, UAT is not an isolated event at the end of development but an ongoing process. As each iteration progresses, UAT becomes a checkpoint where user feedback is sought and incorporated, steering the software towards alignment with user needs. The use of acceptance criteria in the agile software development process makes for the inclusion of UAT like verifications.

There are two choices to integrate UAT as part of Agile:

  1. You treat it as “release to production” and the Product Owner contacts the users or Business Analyst to test the functionality in UAT.
  2. You treat it as part of the development. Then it should be in Definition of Done, and it should be part of the Product Backlog Item’s flow to “Done” i.e. To Do -> In Progress -> UAT -> Done.

UAT’s role in continuous delivery and frequent releases

Agile’s hallmark is continuous delivery and frequent releases. UAT plays a pivotal role in ensuring that these releases are not just swift but also polished. With UAT as a recurring step, each release undergoes meticulous user scrutiny. This process is a buffer against the introduction of defects and glitches, safeguarding the user experience. As Agile embraces change, UAT steps in to validate changes, making certain that they resonate positively with users.

The team’s Definition of Done should be such that downstream activities, such as integration or user acceptance testing, complete successfully. If the result of user acceptance testing is that the product is not acceptable, the team should understand why and make changes to their way of working to regularly create Increments that are likely to be acceptable. Any other feedback from UAT can be treated like customer or user feedback and ordered with the rest of the Product Backlog.

By removing external dependencies, you no longer need to worry about how to estimate or plan for these external dependencies during refinement or Sprint Planning events.

Moreover, UAT’s involvement in the Agile cycle nurtures a culture of collaboration. Developers, testers, and end-users converge, where user feedback shapes the software’s evolution. This real-time engagement refines the software, nurturing a product that evolves organically with user needs.

Business Analysts (BA) are expected to perform UAT testing. Become a great BA with the Business Analyst Work Experience Program

Frequently asked questions about User Acceptance Testing UAT

  1. What is user acceptance testing UAT and how it works?

    User Acceptance Testing (UAT), or software testing from the point of view of the users, is usually the final stage of any software development lifecycle (SDLC) before going live. UAT is the final stage of the development process to determine that the software does what it was designed to do according to the requirements originally stated.

  2. What is UAT vs QA testing?

    UAT and QA both involve testing. However, they have different objectives. The difference is that the QA teams work to ensure error-free software whereas UAT ensures that end users get the product they want. QA teams generally perform system integration testing while business analysts perform UAT.

  3. What is UAT in agile?

    UAT, or user acceptance testing, is the final stage in the software testing process. In Agile as well as waterfall projects, it is typically performed by the end-users, clients or business analysts to determine whether an application or feature fulfills its purpose. UAT must be completed before the software can be released to the market. UAT can be performed within a sprint or before a production release.

  4. What tool is used for UAT?

    With the help of Selenium, testers can automate the acceptance tests, ensuring that the application meets the requirements of the end users. However, it's important to note that Selenium alone may not be sufficient for all aspects of UAT and may need to be combined with other tools for a complete UAT solution. JIRA is also typically used to manage and maintain test cases.

  5. What is UAT in DevOps?

    User acceptance testing (UAT) is the last phase of the software testing process. During UAT, actual software users test the software to make sure it works as per real-world scenarios, and according to the requirements. DevOps incorporates the practice of UAT to allow for seamless delivery of high quality software products.

  6. Who prepares UAT?

    User acceptance testing is performed by business analysts, clients or the end-users. They will write a complete UAT test plan, prepare a UAT environment that mirrors production, write corresponding UAT test cases, execute these test cases, report defects if any, verify the fixes to the defects raised and finally confirm that the software is fit for use.

  7. Is UAT part of Agile?

    UAT is included in the agile framework, and should be part of the sub tasks for each use story in the product backlog. A user story describes a user, the feature they want to use, and how it helps them achieve their goal, and the UAT tests should describe an explain the acceptance criteria.

  8. Who manages UAT in Agile?

    This could be the Business Analyst or Product Owner. But because the ability to produce a “Done” increment would be so tightly coupled to this process, a Development Team should certainly take an interest in making sure UAT takes place at the right time and in the right way to maximize what they are able to achieve.

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Gap Analysis for Business Analysts – How to perform a gap analysis – format, template and techniques

gap analysis performed by business analysts - templates, format and guidelines

A gap analysis is a strategic planning tool used to identify the difference (“gap”) between the current state and the desired future state of a business or project. It helps organizations understand where they are currently, where they want to be, and what steps are needed to bridge the gap between the two.

Overview of the Gap Analysis

Gap analysis - Look for gaps in processes and technologies
Gap analysis – Look for gaps in processes and technologies

Gap analysis is a systematic approach to assess the current state of the organization or project and compare it to the desired future state. The analysis helps identify discrepancies or “gaps” between the two states, enabling the organization to plan and strategize for improvement.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

Purpose of the gap analysis

The purpose is to understand the current performance, capabilities, or status of the organization or project in relation to its desired goals. The main objectives of the gap analysis may include:

  1. Identifying areas of improvement: Determine which aspects of the organization or project require enhancement to meet the desired objectives and performance levels.
  2. Setting realistic targets: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) targets to bridge the identified gaps.
  3. Formulating actionable strategies: Develop strategies and action plans to address the identified gaps and improve the overall performance.
  4. Aligning with strategic goals: Ensure that the organization or project is aligned with its strategic objectives and long-term vision.

The gap analysis is usually performed by the business analyst or product manager. Learn more about the role of the business analyst here.

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Gap Analysis in 5 steps

  1. Identify Goals and Criteria: Clearly define the organization’s goals and objectives. Establish measurable criteria or key performance indicators (KPIs) that will be used to assess the current state and measure progress towards the desired future state.
  2. Assess Current State: Gather data and information about the organization’s current performance and capabilities. Compare the current state against the predefined criteria to identify gaps and areas where the organization falls short of its goals.
  3. Define Future State: Envision the desired future state of the organization. Set specific, achievable, and time-bound targets aligned with the organization’s strategic vision. This step serves as the benchmark for assessing progress during the analysis.
  4. Analyze and Interpret Gaps: Analyze the gaps between the current state and the future state. Identify the root causes and contributing factors to the gaps, considering both internal and external factors that influence performance.
  5. Develop Action Plan: Create an action plan to bridge the identified gaps. Propose strategies, initiatives, and solutions to address weaknesses and capitalize on opportunities. Establish a timeline, allocate resources, and assign responsibilities for implementing the action plan. Regularly monitor progress and adjust strategies as needed to achieve the desired future state.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

The need to perform gap analysis / application of gap analysis / types of gap analysis

  1. Goal Alignment: Gap analysis helps align an organization’s objectives with its actual performance. It ensures that the organization’s goals are realistic, achievable, and grounded in the current capabilities and resources.
  2. Performance Evaluation: It provides an objective evaluation of an organization’s current state, including strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement. This evaluation is crucial for understanding where the organization stands in comparison to its desired future state.
  3. Strategic Planning: Gap analysis is an essential component of strategic planning. It helps organizations identify the gaps between their current position and their strategic vision. This information is critical for formulating effective strategies to bridge those gaps and achieve long-term success.
  4. Resource Optimization: By identifying gaps, organizations can optimize the allocation of resources. It allows them to prioritize areas that require immediate attention and allocate resources efficiently for the most impactful outcomes.
  5. Decision-Making: Gap analysis provides a data-driven basis for decision-making. It helps leaders and stakeholders make informed choices about resource allocation, investments, and strategic initiatives.
  6. Risk Management: Understanding gaps and weaknesses helps organizations identify potential risks and vulnerabilities. Addressing these gaps proactively can minimize risks and prevent potential issues from escalating.
  7. Continuous Improvement: Gap analysis fosters a culture of continuous improvement within the organization. It encourages regular assessment and adjustment of strategies to adapt to changing circumstances and remain competitive.
  8. Customer-Centric Approach: For businesses, gap analysis helps in understanding customer needs and expectations. By identifying gaps in customer satisfaction and experience, organizations can tailor their products and services to meet customer demands effectively.
  9. Performance Measurement: Gap analysis provides a benchmark for measuring progress and success. Organizations can track their improvements over time and evaluate the effectiveness of their initiatives.
  10. Compliance and Regulatory Requirements: In regulated industries, gap analysis helps organizations ensure compliance with industry standards, laws, and regulations. It allows them to identify and address gaps in meeting these requirements.

Scope of the gap analysis

The gap analysis will have its scope defined, including what aspects of the organization or project will be covered and what will be excluded. The scope may include specific departments, processes, systems, or functions. Be sure to clarify the boundaries and limitations of the analysis to manage expectations.

  1. Inclusions: Clearly state what will be covered in the gap analysis, such as financial performance, operational efficiency, customer satisfaction, or specific project deliverables.
  2. Exclusions: Specify what will not be part of the analysis to avoid any misunderstandings. For instance, it might be necessary to exclude certain factors that are not within the scope of the current project.
  3. Timeframe: Mention the time period for which the analysis will be conducted. It could be the current fiscal year, a specific quarter, or a certain phase of the project.
  4. Data Sources: Describe the data sources that will be used to gather information for the analysis. These may include internal reports, interviews, surveys, or external benchmarks.
  5. Constraints: Highlight any constraints or limitations that may affect the analysis, such as resource availability, time constraints, or data accessibility.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

Benefits of performing a gap analysis

Gap analysis offers several benefits to organizations and projects:

  1. Identifies Opportunities for Improvement: Gap analysis helps organizations identify areas where they are falling short of their goals or desired outcomes. By understanding the gaps between the current state and the future state, organizations can identify specific areas for improvement and growth.
  2. Sets Clear Objectives: Gap analysis sets clear and measurable objectives for the organization or project. It defines the target outcomes and provides a roadmap for achieving them, enabling better focus and direction for the team.
  3. Optimizes Resource Allocation: By identifying areas with significant gaps, gap analysis allows organizations to prioritize resource allocation. It ensures that resources such as time, budget, and manpower are allocated to the most critical areas for improvement.
  4. Enhances Decision-Making: Gap analysis provides a data-driven basis for decision-making. It helps leaders and stakeholders understand the potential risks, benefits, and impacts of various choices and strategies.
  5. Encourages Continuous Improvement: Gap analysis is a continuous process, and organizations can regularly assess their progress and adjust strategies accordingly. It fosters a culture of continuous improvement and adaptation to changing circumstances.
  6. Aligns Objectives with Strategy: By defining the future state and comparing it with the current state, gap analysis ensures that objectives are closely aligned with the organization’s strategic vision. It helps ensure that efforts are directed towards achieving the organization’s long-term goals.
  7. Promotes Accountability: Gap analysis assigns responsibilities and accountabilities for bridging the identified gaps. It clarifies who is responsible for what tasks, improving accountability and ownership among team members.
  8. Increases Efficiency and Productivity: Addressing identified gaps often involves streamlining processes and eliminating inefficiencies. This leads to increased overall efficiency and productivity in the organization.
  9. Mitigates Risks: Gap analysis helps identify potential risks and challenges that may hinder progress. By addressing these risks proactively, organizations can reduce the likelihood of negative outcomes.
  10. Boosts Competitive Advantage: By identifying and addressing gaps, organizations can gain a competitive advantage in the market. They can differentiate themselves by offering superior products, services, or processes compared to their competitors.

Techniques used to perform gap analysis

Several techniques are used to perform gap analysis, depending on the context and the specific requirements of the analysis. Some commonly used techniques include:

  • SWOT Analysis: SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis is a widely used technique to assess the internal strengths and weaknesses of an organization and external opportunities and threats it faces. By comparing strengths and weaknesses to opportunities and threats, gaps can be identified, and strategies can be developed to address them.
SWOT Analysis template for use during gap analysis
SWOT Analysis template
  • Benchmarking: Benchmarking involves comparing an organization’s performance metrics with those of industry peers or best-in-class companies. It helps identify performance gaps and highlights areas where the organization lags behind or excels, providing insights for improvement.
  • Performance Metrics Analysis: This technique involves analyzing key performance indicators (KPIs) and other relevant metrics to assess an organization’s current performance against predefined targets or industry benchmarks. Any gaps between the current and desired performance levels can be identified and addressed.
  • Customer Feedback and Surveys: Collecting feedback from customers through surveys, interviews, or focus groups can help identify gaps in customer expectations and experiences. Customer feedback is crucial for understanding areas where the organization needs to improve to better meet customer needs.
  • Process Mapping: Process mapping visually represents the current processes within an organization, helping to identify inefficiencies, bottlenecks, and areas of improvement. Comparing the current process with the desired future state can reveal gaps that need to be addressed.
  • Capability Maturity Model (CMM): CMM is a framework used to assess and improve the maturity level of an organization’s processes. By comparing the organization’s current maturity level to the desired level, gaps in process maturity can be identified.
  • Gap Analysis Surveys and Questionnaires: Specific surveys and questionnaires can be designed to gather targeted information about various aspects of the organization’s operations. The results can then be compared to ideal or desired conditions to uncover gaps.
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis: Cost-benefit analysis helps evaluate the financial impact of different strategies and initiatives. It can be used to compare the cost of implementing improvements against the potential benefits to identify the most cost-effective solutions.
  • Risk Analysis: Analyzing potential risks and vulnerabilities can help identify gaps in risk management practices. This analysis enables organizations to develop risk mitigation strategies and improve their resilience.
  • Employee Feedback and Stakeholder Interviews: Gathering feedback from employees and stakeholders within the organization can provide valuable insights into operational challenges and potential gaps that need to be addressed.

The choice of technique(s) for gap analysis depends on the organization’s goals, available data, and the complexity of the analysis. Often, a combination of these techniques is used to gain a comprehensive understanding of the gaps and develop effective strategies for improvement.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

Current State Assessment

Be sure to provide a comprehensive description of the current state of the organization or project. Include details about its current structure, processes, systems, and overall performance. Describe the organization’s current position in the market, its products or services, and any recent developments or changes that have taken place.

Define Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Metrics, Current State and Issues

Identify and present the key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics that are used to measure the current state. KPIs may vary based on the organization’s goals and objectives, but they should be relevant to the specific scope of the gap analysis. Common KPIs may include financial metrics (e.g., revenue, profitability), operational metrics (e.g., efficiency, productivity), customer metrics (e.g., satisfaction, retention), and quality metrics (e.g., defects, errors).

Assess and outline the strengths and weaknesses of the organization or project’s current state. Consider both internal and external factors that influence its performance. Strengths may include areas where the organization excels, such as strong brand reputation, efficient processes, or a talented workforce. Weaknesses may include areas of concern, such as outdated technology, inefficient workflows, or limited market share.

Identify and highlight any significant issues or challenges that are affecting the current state. These may include obstacles that hinder progress, obstacles that prevent the organization from reaching its goals, or issues that have the potential to cause significant impact. It’s essential to be specific and provide evidence or data to support the identified issues and challenges.

Future State Definition

Ensure that describe the desired future state of the organization or project. Paint a detailed picture of what the organization aims to achieve in terms of its structure, processes, capabilities, and overall performance. Explain how the future state aligns with the organization’s long-term vision and strategic objectives.

Outline the specific goals, objectives, and targets that the organization aims to accomplish in the future state. Goals are broad, high-level statements of what the organization wants to achieve. Objectives are more specific and measurable outcomes that contribute to the achievement of the goals. Targets are quantifiable metrics or milestones used to track progress toward the objectives.

For example:

  • Goal: Increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.
  • Objective: Improve customer service response time by 30%.
  • Target: Achieve a customer satisfaction rating of 90% by the end of the next quarter.

Explain the organization’s vision for the future state and how it fits into the broader strategic direction. The vision should be a clear and inspiring statement of the organization’s long-term aspirations and what it aims to become. Describe how the future state aligns with the organization’s overall strategy and how it supports growth, innovation, or market expansion.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

Gap Identification

With the above done, you will not be able to conduct a detailed comparison between the current state (as described in Section II) and the desired future state (as outlined in Section III). Identify the gaps or differences between the two states in terms of processes, capabilities, performance, and any other relevant aspects. Use visual aids such as tables or diagrams to present the comparison clearly.

If feasible, quantify the gaps between the current and future states using the key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics identified in Section II. Provide numerical values to represent the differences and demonstrate the extent of improvement required to reach the future state targets. Quantifying the gap helps in prioritizing areas for improvement and sets a clear target for each identified gap.

For example:

  • Current State: Customer satisfaction rating of 75%.
  • Future State Target: Customer satisfaction rating of 90%.
  • Gap: 15 percentage points.

Subsequently, delve into the root causes behind each identified gap between the current and future states. Use various analytical techniques, such as brainstorming, cause-and-effect diagrams (Ishikawa or Fishbone diagrams), or 5 Whys analysis, to identify the underlying reasons for the gaps. Understanding the root causes is critical for devising effective solutions and action plans.

Gap analysis - Fishbone diagram for root cause analysis
Fishbone diagram for root cause analysis

For example:

  • Gap: Customer service response time not meeting the future state target.
  • Root Causes: Insufficient staff training, outdated technology, and lack of automated response systems.

Factors Contributing to the Gap

Internal Factors (e.g., Processes, Systems, Resources, Skills):

Identify and analyze the internal factors within the organization that contribute to the gaps between the current and future states. These factors are within the organization’s control and can be influenced through strategic decisions and actions. Some examples of internal factors include:

  1. Processes: Assess the efficiency and effectiveness of existing processes. Identify any bottlenecks, redundancies, or gaps in the workflows that hinder progress towards the future state.
  2. Systems and Technology: Evaluate the organization’s current technological infrastructure and tools. Determine whether the existing systems support the desired future state requirements or if upgrades are necessary.
  3. Resources: Examine the availability and allocation of resources, including human resources, financial capital, and equipment. Determine whether the organization has the necessary resources to achieve the future state objectives.
  4. Skills and Training: Assess the skill sets and capabilities of the workforce. Identify any gaps in skills and knowledge that may hinder the organization from reaching the future state targets.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

External Factors (e.g., Market Trends, Competitors, Regulatory Changes):

Identify and analyze the external factors that contribute to the gaps between the current and future states. These factors are outside the direct control of the organization but can significantly influence its performance and success. Some examples of external factors include:

  1. Market Trends: Analyze current and emerging market trends, consumer preferences, and industry developments. Identify how these trends impact the organization’s ability to achieve its future state objectives.
  2. Competitor Analysis: Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of competitors and how they compare to the organization’s capabilities. Identify areas where the organization lags behind or can gain a competitive advantage.
  3. Regulatory Changes: Assess how changes in laws, regulations, or industry standards may impact the organization’s operations and ability to meet the future state requirements.
  4. Economic Factors: Consider economic conditions, such as inflation, interest rates, and market stability, that can influence the organization’s financial performance and ability to invest in future state initiatives.

Risks of not addressing the gap and Opportunities of having addressed the gap

Risks of not addressing the gap

Identify and assess the potential risks and negative consequences that the organization may face if the gaps between the current and future states are not addressed. Failure to bridge the gaps could lead to various challenges, setbacks, and missed opportunities.

Some common risks associated with not addressing the gap include:

  1. Loss of Competitive Advantage: Not achieving the desired future state may result in the organization losing its competitive edge and market position.
  2. Customer Dissatisfaction: Failure to meet customer expectations and demands may lead to decreased customer satisfaction and loyalty.
  3. Inefficient Processes: Unaddressed gaps in processes may lead to inefficiencies, increased costs, and operational inefficiencies.
  4. Financial Losses: Failure to achieve the future state objectives may lead to financial losses, missed revenue opportunities, and increased costs.
  5. Employee Disengagement: Lack of progress towards the desired future state may impact employee morale and engagement.
  6. Compliance and Legal Issues: Failure to meet regulatory requirements or address changes in compliance standards could lead to legal or reputational risks.

Opportunities Gained from Addressing the Gap

Highlight the potential opportunities and positive outcomes that the organization can gain by addressing the identified gaps. Successfully bridging the gaps can lead to several advantages and benefits. Some opportunities gained from addressing the gap include:

  1. Increased Market Share: Achieving the desired future state may lead to increased market share and a larger customer base.
  2. Enhanced Customer Experience: Meeting customer expectations and delivering on the desired future state can lead to improved customer experience and loyalty.
  3. Improved Efficiency and Productivity: Addressing process gaps can lead to streamlined workflows and increased efficiency.
  4. Cost Savings: Closing gaps in operations can lead to cost savings and better resource allocation.
  5. Innovation and Differentiation: Successfully implementing future state initiatives can lead to innovation and differentiation from competitors.
  6. Attracting Talent: Progressing towards the desired future state can enhance the organization’s reputation and attractiveness to potential employees.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

Recommendations and Solutions for Gap Analysis

Proposed Strategies to Bridge the Gap

In this section, present the recommended strategies and approaches to bridge the gaps between the current state and the desired future state. Each strategy should directly address the identified gaps and align with the organization’s goals and objectives. Consider both short-term and long-term strategies that will lead to sustainable improvements. Clearly explain the rationale behind each proposed strategy and how it contributes to achieving the future state.

Action Plan with Specific Steps and Milestones

Outline a detailed action plan that lays out the specific steps and milestones required to implement the recommended strategies. The action plan should be well-structured, sequential, and time-bound. Include responsible parties or teams for each action, along with expected completion dates for each milestone. This ensures clear accountability and helps track progress throughout the implementation process.

Resource Requirements (Financial, Human, Technological)

Identify the resource requirements needed to execute the action plan effectively. These resources may include financial investments, human resources, technological upgrades, or external expertise. Quantify the estimated costs associated with each strategy and provide a budget for the entire implementation process. Ensure that the organization has the necessary resources to support the gap-closing initiatives.

Risk Mitigation Plan for Implementing Solutions

Outline the risk mitigation plan to address potential challenges and obstacles that may arise during the implementation of the recommended solutions. Identify key risks and uncertainties, along with their potential impact on the success of the gap-closing initiatives. For each risk, propose specific mitigation strategies to reduce or eliminate its negative effects. The risk mitigation plan helps ensure a smoother implementation process and minimizes disruptions.

Implementation Plan of the Gap Analysis

Timeline and Sequence of Activities

Provide a detailed timeline and sequence of activities for the implementation of the proposed strategies and action plan. Break down the action plan into smaller tasks or phases, and assign estimated start and end dates for each activity. Ensure that the timeline is realistic and considers any dependencies or interrelationships between tasks. Include milestones to track progress and celebrate achievements.

Roles and Responsibilities in performing a Gap Analysis

Identify and assign specific roles and responsibilities to individuals or teams involved in the implementation process. Clearly define who will be accountable for each task, who will be responsible for executing it, and who will be consulted or informed. Ensuring clear roles and responsibilities helps streamline communication and decision-making during the implementation phase.

For example:

  • Project Manager: Overall coordination and management of the implementation plan.
  • Department A Team: Responsible for implementing Strategy 1 and Strategy 2.
  • Department B Team: Responsible for implementing Strategy 3 and Strategy 4.
  • Finance Department: Responsible for budget allocation and financial oversight.
  • Senior Management: Decision-makers and sponsors for the implementation process.

Communication and Stakeholder Engagement Plan

Outline a communication and stakeholder engagement plan to ensure effective communication with all relevant stakeholders throughout the implementation process. Identify key stakeholders, such as employees, management, customers, suppliers, or external partners, and determine the appropriate communication channels and frequency of updates.

The communication plan should include:

  • Regular progress updates to stakeholders on the status of implementation.
  • Channels of communication (e.g., meetings, emails, progress reports, presentations).
  • Stakeholder engagement activities to involve them in the process and address any concerns.
  • A feedback mechanism to capture suggestions or concerns from stakeholders.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

Monitoring and Evaluation of the Gap Analysis project

Key Performance Indicators to Measure Progress

Identify the key performance indicators (KPIs) that will be used to monitor and measure the progress of the implementation plan. These KPIs should be aligned with the objectives and targets set in Section III and should reflect the organization’s priorities. The selected KPIs should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).

For example:

  • KPI: Customer satisfaction rating.
  • Target: Achieve a customer satisfaction rating of 90% by the end of the next quarter.
  • Progress: Monitor customer satisfaction scores on a monthly basis and compare them against the target.

Evaluation Criteria for Success:

Define the criteria that will be used to determine the success of the implementation plan. These criteria should be based on the achievement of the desired future state and the objectives set in Section III. The evaluation criteria should be clear, objective, and aligned with the organization’s overall goals.

For example:

  • Criterion: Increase in market share.
  • Success: Achieving a market share growth of 5% within the next six months.

Review Mechanisms and Frequency

Outline the review mechanisms and the frequency of evaluation to assess the progress of the implementation plan. Determine when and how progress will be reviewed, who will be involved in the review process, and the format of the review meetings or reports.

For example:

  • Monthly Progress Review: Hold monthly meetings with the project team to review the progress, discuss challenges, and make necessary adjustments to the implementation plan.
  • Quarterly Performance Review: Conduct quarterly evaluations to assess the achievement of targets and alignment with the desired future state.


Gap analysis is a valuable tool that supports decision-making, goal-setting, and continuous improvement efforts. It provides organizations with a systematic approach to identify and address challenges, maximize opportunities, and ultimately drive success and growth. It is a valuable tool for organizations seeking to make informed decisions, align their strategies with their objectives, and continuously improve their performance. It enables organizations to bridge the gap between their current state and their desired future state, driving growth, efficiency, and competitiveness.

Download the Gap Analysis Template

Frequently asked questions about gap analysis

  1. What do you mean by gap analysis?

    A gap analysis is performed to recognize an organization's current state—by mapping processes, activities and measuring time, money, and labor—and comparing it with its desired state. By defining and analyzing these gaps between the desired state and the current state, the project team can create an action plan to move the organization forward and fill in the gaps.

  2. Why is gap analysis important?

    Gap analysis helps organizations set clear objectives, optimize resource allocation, and make informed decisions. It promotes continuous improvement and ensures alignment with strategic goals.

  3. What is a gap analysis also known as?

    A gap analysis is also called a needs analysis and is important for ongoing improvement of the performance of any organization.

  4. How do you write a gap analysis example?

    1. Identify the organizational area to be analyzed.
    2. Identify the goals to be accomplished.
    3. State the ideal future state.
    4. Analyze the current state.
    5. Compare the current state with the ideal future state.
    6. Describe the gap and quantify the difference.
    7. Create a plan of action (project) to bridge the gap.

  5. What are the techniques used in gap analysis?

    Techniques include SWOT analysis, benchmarking, performance metrics analysis, customer feedback, process mapping, CMM, cost-benefit analysis, risk analysis, and surveys.

  6. Is a SWOT analysis a gap analysis?

    SWOT analysis is a technique used while performing a gap analysis. Using a SWOT analysis diagram is one of the ways to take understanding where an organization stands, its current state position in the competitive landscape, what it is doing well, and what it could be doing better.

  7. What is the value of gap analysis?

    A gap analysis is a good way to determine and move to a higher state of organizational productivity. By evaluating ongoing performance, inputs and outputs, and comparing these to desired higher states, one is able to determine the difference and work out ways to navigate that gap.

  8. Who should perform gap analysis?

    Business analysts are usually the ones who undertake gap analyses to determine how to make improvements. The gap analysis can be applied to performance of a department or team, an individual, or the entire company. Whenever there are growth goals, or existing objectives are not met, it is an indicator to discover what may be getting in the way through a gap analysis.

  9. How does gap analysis benefit decision-making?

    Gap analysis provides data-driven insights that assist in making informed decisions about resource allocation, investments, and strategic initiatives.

  10. What are the three 3 fundamental components of a gap analysis?

    The three fundamental components of a gap analysis are the current state, desired state, and the gap. A gap analysis is used in organizations to help them understand the differences between their current and desired state. By understanding this, they can work on strategies to help close the gaps.

  11. What role does gap analysis play in strategic planning?

    Gap analysis helps identify gaps between the current state and the strategic vision, enabling the development of effective strategies to bridge those gaps.

  12. How does gap analysis support continuous improvement?

    By regularly assessing progress and adapting strategies, gap analysis fosters a culture of continuous improvement and adaptation to changing circumstances.

  13. How does gap analysis help organizations prioritize improvements?

    Gap analysis prioritizes areas requiring immediate attention, optimizing the allocation of resources for the most impactful outcomes.

  14. What are the potential risks of not conducting gap analysis?

    Without gap analysis, organizations may lack direction, miss growth opportunities, and face operational inefficiencies due to a lack of focus on key improvement areas.

  15. Can gap analysis be used in various industries?

    Yes, gap analysis is applicable across industries, from business and healthcare to education and technology, as it provides a universal framework for improvement.

  16. What is the outcome of gap analysis?

    The outcome of gap analysis is a comprehensive report highlighting identified gaps, recommended solutions, and a roadmap for achieving the desired future state.

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5 BPMN examples in 3 easy steps – Editable BPMN – Here’s how to draw business process models

One of the tasks of a business analyst (BA) is to map out the current state and future states of the organization or processes. To clearly illustrate these states, BAs frequently use business process models. These process models utilize specific shapes that convey meaning in terms of processes and tasks.

What is BPMN (business process modelling notations) for business analysts?

Business process modelling notations (BPMN) are a suit of symbols and shapes used to represent business processes. Visually representing a business process offers business analysts the ability to communicate clearly with business as well as technical stakeholders.

Following a uniform Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) provides organizations with the capability of understanding their business procedures graphically and will give them the ability to communicate these procedures in a standardized way; a way that all stakeholders can understand.

In this article, we’ll learn to draw business process models using a process mapping / modelling tool. Note that there are several visual modelling tools available and most are well suited for the job including MS Visio.

Business Process Modelling Notation – BPMN Examples

Business analyst make frequent use of BPMN diagrams to ensure that the diverse teams they work with are on the same page. These diagrams are usually incorporated into the business requirements document (BRD), functional requirements document, and / or specifications.

Types of BPMN events

The three types of events in BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) are:

  1. Start Events: Start events represent the beginning of a process or a subprocess. They indicate where a process flow starts and can have different triggers, such as receiving a message, a timer reaching a specific point, or the occurrence of a specific condition. Start events are depicted with a single thin border.
  2. Intermediate Events: Intermediate events occur within a process flow, between the start and end events. They represent points where something happens or is expected to happen during the execution of the process. Intermediate events can be triggered by various events, such as the completion of a task, receiving a message, a timer, or the occurrence of an exception. Intermediate events are depicted with a double border.
  3. End Events: End events mark the completion of a process or a subprocess. They represent the point where the process flow terminates, either successfully or due to an exception or error. End events are depicted with a single thick border and may have different outcomes based on the flow preceding them.

These three types of events—start events, intermediate events, and end events—help define the flow and structure of a BPMN diagram by indicating where a process begins, where it ends, and the events that occur in between.

BPMN Walkthrough

Let’s work to develop a business process model for the following example scenario:

Once the boarding pass has been received, passengers proceed to the security check. Here they need to pass the personal security screening and the luggage screening. Afterwards, they can proceed to the departure level.

Time Needed : 1 hours

I'll advise you to first have an understanding of business needs and the proposed solution. A business process model is usually made for solutions that are envisioned for implementation. Once you have that ready and clearly defined in a business requirements document (BRD), you may then proceed to follow the steps enlisted below. Lets take an example and develop the process model:

  1. Explore available BPMN shapes that are frequently used

    BPMN diagrams frequently make use of shapes to represent events, activities and gates. You can get started quickly by mastering these symbols and shapes that are frequently used.
    There are three main events in BPMN i.e. start events, intermediate events and end events.

  2. Order the activities and events

    In the context of the example provided above, the following will be the order of activities: boarding pass received > proceed to the security check > pass the personal security screening and the luggage screening > proceed to the departure level > departure level reached.

  3. Use and connect the appropriate BPMN symbols

    Use gates, in this context, parallel gates to demonstrate the two activities that will be conducted in parallel. Converge the two paths with the same gate.

  • Any BPMN tool.
  • Analytical thinking, BPMN shapes.

Become a Business Analyst by mastering BPMN

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Types of BPMN Diagrams

These three types of BPMN diagrams serve different purposes and provide varying levels of detail, allowing for comprehensive modeling and documentation of business processes at different levels of abstraction and complexity. The three types of BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) diagrams are:

Process Diagrams

Process diagrams are the most commonly used type of BPMN diagram. They represent the flow of activities, events, and decisions within a single process. Process diagrams use various symbols to illustrate the sequence of tasks, gateways for decision points, start and end events, and the flow of data or messages between process elements.

Example: Purchase Order Process

This process diagram represents the flow of activities, events, and decisions involved in a purchase order process. It includes symbols such as start event, activities, exclusive gateway for approval decision, and end events. The diagram illustrates the sequence of tasks, the decision point for approving or rejecting the purchase order, and the overall flow of the process.

Collaboration Diagrams

Collaboration diagrams, also known as choreography diagrams, focus on illustrating interactions and collaborations between multiple participants or business entities. They show the exchange of messages, events, and tasks between different process participants, representing the coordination and synchronization of activities across organizational boundaries.

Example: Order Fulfillment Collaboration

This collaboration diagram showcases the interactions between different participants in an order fulfillment process, such as a customer and a warehouse. It visualizes the exchange of messages, events, and tasks between the participants. The diagram demonstrates the coordination and synchronization of activities between the customer and the warehouse, representing the flow of information and tasks across organizational boundaries.

Choreography Diagrams

Choreography diagrams provide a higher-level view of interactions between multiple participants in a process. They emphasize the sequence and coordination of activities among different participants rather than the internal details of each participant’s process. Choreography diagrams typically show the flow of messages and tasks exchanged between participants, along with any associated conditions or constraints.

Example: Customer Support Interaction

This choreography diagram illustrates the interaction and coordination between a customer and a support agent in a customer support process. It highlights the sequence and coordination of activities between the participants. The diagram shows the flow of messages and tasks exchanged between the customer and the support agent, capturing the responsibilities and interactions between them.

5 BPMN examples

Purchase Order Process

This scenario represents the process of handling purchase orders within a business. It starts with the reception of a purchase order, followed by activities such as validating the order, checking inventory availability, and approving the purchase order. The approval decision is made using an exclusive gateway. Finally, the process ends with the purchase order either being approved or rejected.

View editable BPMN

This is a Purchase Order Process

Customer Onboarding Process

This scenario outlines the steps involved in onboarding a new customer. It begins with the customer registration and includes activities such as verifying customer information, creating a customer account, conducting a background check, and issuing a welcome package. The background check and account creation activities run in parallel using a parallel gateway. The process concludes when the customer onboarding is complete.

View editable BPMN here.

Customer Onboarding BPMN Process

Expense Reimbursement Process

This scenario focuses on the reimbursement of employee expenses. It starts with the submission of an expense report, followed by activities like verifying the report, approving it, and processing the reimbursement. An exclusive gateway is used to determine whether the expense report is approved or rejected. The process ends when the reimbursement is processed.

Product Development Process

This scenario outlines the process of developing a new product. It begins with a new product idea and involves activities such as conceptualizing the product, conducting market research, developing a prototype, testing the prototype, and refining the product based on feedback. The process ends when the product is deemed ready for launch.

Customer Support Process

This scenario represents the steps involved in handling customer support tickets. It starts with the creation of a support ticket and includes activities such as assigning the ticket to an agent, investigating the reported issue, troubleshooting the problem, and potentially escalating it if needed. The investigation and troubleshooting activities run in parallel using a parallel gateway. The process concludes when the ticket is resolved.

Become a Business Analyst by mastering BPMN

Discover and experience the entire life cycle of business analysis with our unique, intensive and affordable Business Analyst Work Experience Certification and Training Course program.

Frequently asked questions about business process modelling notations

  1. What is a BPMN diagram?

    A BPMN (business process modelling notation) diagram is a visual representation for illustrating processes in a business process model. Process models are usually sequence of steps that are performed to attain an objective or result.

  2. What are the three types of BPMN

    There are three types of BPMN diagrams namely Process Diagrams, Collaboration Diagrams, and Choreography Diagrams.

  3. What are the three types of events in BPMN?

    There are three main events within business process modeling BPMN i.e. start events, intermediate events, and end events.

  4. What are Process Diagrams?

    Process diagrams are the most commonly used type of BPMN diagram. They represent the flow of activities, events, and decisions within a single process.

  5. What are Collaboration Diagrams?

    Collaboration diagrams, also known as choreography diagrams, focus on illustrating interactions and collaborations between multiple participants or business entities.

  6. What are Choreography Diagrams?

    Choreography diagrams provide a higher-level view of interactions between multiple participants in a process. They emphasize the sequence and coordination of activities among different participants rather than the internal details of each participant's process.

  7. Who began BPMN?

    BPMN was originally developed by the Business Process Management Initiative. BPMN has been maintained by the Object Management Group since the two organizations merged in 2005.

  8. What is BPMN used for?

    BPMN is used to visualize coded flows in an understandable way. For example, business analysts frequently create BPMN diagrams representing business processes. BPMN diagrams are usually embedded into the business requirements document and the functional requirements document.

  9. Is BPMN a flowchart?

    Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a charting technique that illustrates the steps of a planned business process from end to end. A key element of Process Management, BPMN diagrams visually depict detailed sequences of business activities and information flows needed to complete a process and complete a task or produce a result.

  10. What is BPMN in business analysis?

    BPMN is the use of symbols to clearly illustrate the flow and processes of business activities. Its primary goal is to eliminate confusion, build common understanding of current states and envisioned future states of business processes.

  11. Why do we create BPMN diagrams?

    The greatest value of demonstrating processes diagrammatically is the elimination of confusion, thereby building common understanding among all stakeholders who view the diagram. Usually, business analysts illustrate the current states and envisioned future states of business processes.

  12. Is BPM and BPMN same?

    BPM is an abbreviate for business process model, while BPMN is a notation, a set of rules and symbols to represent the steps of a process graphically.

  13. What are the BPMN basic shapes?

    While there are many shapes as outlined in the BPMN guide, there are four main shapes that set the foundation for describing processes: task, event, decision, and flow.

  14. What are BPMN tools?

    BPMN tools are graphical software used to design and illustrate systematic approaches to represent business processes. They are used to model, implement, and automate business workflows with the goal of improving organizational performance by minimizing errors, inefficiencies, miscommunication and build common understanding.

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How to start a career as a business analyst?

Most students and academicians aren’t familiar with the role of the business analyst. This leads to a mismatch of expectations between industry needs and academic deliverables. While many may have heard of it, few understand the role. In this post, I’ll offer you step by step instructions on what you will need to begin your career as a business analyst.

Time Needed : 30 days

A business analyst is a problem solver, and helps find ways to quickly deliver solutions and products to market, leads change, and makes organizations effective. Business analysts focus on achieving business needs and requirements by bridging the gap between an organization’s current position and the one it desires to reach.

  1. Know the responsibilities of a business analyst:

    The Project Management Institute observes that the career duties of a business analyst include gathering information about problems to be solved or procedures to be improved, interviewing personnel and conducting onsite observations to determine the methods, equipment, and personnel that will be needed, finding root causes for problems and proposing solutions that many include new systems, procedures, or personnel changes, and presenting findings to decision makers.

  2. Understand the documents created by a business analyst:

    The career of a business analyst involves developing several documents critical the the business objective including but not limited to Business Requirement Document (learn more), User stories, Use cases, Functional requirement specification (FRS) / Functional Requirement Document (FRD) (learn more), Requirement traceability matrix (RTM), and Test cases.

  3. Gain experience performing business analysis:

    The best way to gain experience as a business analyst is to enroll in a work based learning program like the one we have. Our Business Analyst Work Experience program helps recent graduates and experienced professionals gain the needed experience to crack tough business analyst interviews and secure the jobs they desire. Alternatively, an internship in business analysis could help but usually does not expose interns to real world work, thereby limiting learning outcomes.

  4. Get your business analysis skills certified:

    Showcase your skills in business analysis by being certified in the Business Analyst Work Experience program. Additionally, demonstrate your BA competence with functioning deliverables, documents, and results to delight your recruiting managers. View an example of a work experience participant here.

  • Business Analyst Work Experience Program
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Frequently asked questions about business analyst skills

  1. What skills are needed for business analyst?

    – Requirements elicitation skills
    – Meeting facilitation skills.
    – Oral and written communication skills.
    – Analytical thinking and problem solving.
    – Business process modelling skills (BPMN).
    – Interpersonal and people skills.
    – Consultation skills.
    – Being detail-oriented and capable of delivering a high level of accuracy.
    – Knowledge of the domain of the organization. For example: finance, healthcare, banking, advertising, etc.
    – Stakeholder analysis.

  2. What technical skills should a business analyst have?

    – SQL
    – Tableau / PowerBI
    – Advanced MS Excel
    – Business process modelling (BPMN)
    – SQL (preferably)
    – Clear understanding of cloud computing
    – Ability to document business and functional requirements clearly.